Nurseries bring coral reefs back to life

These coral reefs are not just spectacular sites to behold; they’re also essential to the ecosystem, providing a habitat and breeding ground for countless species of fish, and protecting land from erosion.

When I took my first scuba lessons in the Florida Keys about a decade ago, I was ready for it to be a new and exciting experience. What I wasn’t ready for, however, was an entirely new world — one that I could barely wrap my head around. It was a world that would quickly become a personal and professional passion.

These days, if I’m not on the water or under it, I’m reading about it or researching it. But 10 years after that first lesson, those very same reefs that I fell in love with are in serious jeopardy.

In fact, they are dying.

“When I first started diving down here in the 1970s, you’d get to some of these reefs, and there was elkhorn coral as far as you can see,” Ken Nedimyer, a longtime local diver, recalled. “You go out to a lot of those reefs now and they are all dead, or they are 90% dead. It just breaks my heart.”

“To see that happening in my lifetime is really depressing.”

Rather than sit by and watch the reefs die, Nedimyer decided to do something about it. He created a nonprofit conservation organization called the Coral Restoration Foundation, which aims to bring coral reefs back from the brink of death by employing a technique Nedimyer pioneered: reproducing disappearing species of coral in underwater nurseries and then replanting them in the dying reefs.

After humble beginnings, the foundation’s success has been staggering.

“We started with one species and now we are working with seven or eight,” Nedimyer said. “We started with just three genetic strains of staghorn coral, now we have about 150 genetic strains. … It’s just getting a lot bigger.”

Fighting against climate change

The Coral Restoration Foundation uses what’s called an asexual reproduction technique: Nedimyer and his team plant thimble-sized pieces of coral in their nursery that grow to be as large as a footballs within a year.

Three-quarters of those football-sized pieces of coral are then planted back in the reef, while the remaining 25% is cut into even smaller pieces that are used as a sort of coral fertilizer in the foundation’s 2-acre nursery, located 25 feet beneath the sea, some 3 miles off the coast of Key Largo.

Nedimyer took me on a tour of the nursery in May. Seeing the rows of living, breathing coral hanging from plastic piping was awe-inspiring.

“It never ceases to amaze me how fast we can grow those corals and how well they are doing,” said Nedimyer, who told me he and his volunteers are underwater any “good diving” day.

Now in its 10th year, the foundation boasts some eye-popping numbers.

“We started with three corals and built that up to 5,000 corals,” said Nedimyer. “We have at any given time 40,000 corals in our nurseries in Florida. Last year we put 20,000 corals on the reef.”

Success doesn’t come easy. Much of the work is trial and error, and much of it is a battle against the seemingly unstoppable. Climate change wreaks havoc by rendering once vibrant, multicolored coral reefs colorless.

“Corals bleach when they have been subject to really hot or really cold water,” explained Nedimyer. “Last year there was tremendous sunshine, low wind and day after day of that.”

Many of the area reefs have lost 99% of their coral due to bleaching, he says.

But Nedimyer is as much a problem-solver as he is a pioneer. He and his teams dove for weeks searching for the 1% of coral that did survive — and that’s what they are growing now: the “survivors.”

“So now we are growing corals that are resistant to the heat,” he said. “We took advantage of really bad conditions to find something that is going to survive.”

‘I don’t want to be the only one’

Emboldened by the success in Florida, Nedimyer has taken his fight global, helping to start nurseries near the Caribbean islands of Bonaire, Jamaica and Mustique, as well as off the coast of Colombia in South America. He has plans to start programs this summer in Curacao, Barbados and St. Lucia.

“The goal is to set up a program, train these people, and let them own it,” he said. “That’s already happening in two of the countries we’ve been in for a while. I don’t want to be the only one doing it. That would be a failure if it were just me.”

The day I joined Nedimyer in his nursery 25 feet below the sea, I experienced just how difficult — and how rewarding — his work can be. It wasn’t easy battling the current and navigating the perils of fire coral, but as we chipped away the rock to make room for our new coral, I had a tremendous sense of pride. It may have only been a few tiny pieces, but knowing that it would one day grow and help restore the ecosystem was a humbling experience.

“I’m just wondering if I have enough lifetime left,” Nedimyer said. “Can I train enough people? … Can we plant enough of those to be able to bring the corals back to life?”

A rhetorical question, though he answered himself.

“I think we can.”

Empathy and sympathy: therapeutic distinctions in counseling.

At various times in the treatment process, mental health counselors

may inadvertently equate the concepts of empathy and sympathy This

confusion is” understandable because there is ambiguity between the

two terms that could contribute to miscommunication in counseling. This

article clarifies the therapeutic distinctions between empathy and

sympathy through the dimensions of aim, appraisal, apprehension, and


As expressions of caring and compassion, empathy and sympathy are

sometimes confused by mental health counselors and may mistakenly be

equated (Chismar, 1988). Although both involve attempts by a counselor

to sensitively respond to what a client is experiencing, there are

qualitative differences between the two processes that have therapeutic

implications (Clark, 2007). Blurring the distinctions and failing to

differentiate empathy from sympathy may contribute to misdirections in

the treatment process.

Empathy offers a way for a mental health counselor to grasp the

feelings and meanings of a client and convey this understanding to the

client (Myers, 2000; Pearson, 1999). In contrast, sympathy is important

in human relationships as an expression of concern or sorrow about

distressful events in a person’s life (Meier & Davis, 2008).

In the counseling and psychotherapy literature, empathy is widely

recognized as a prominent variable in the development of a positive

treatment relationship

Arthur J. Clark is affiliated with St. Lawrence University.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Professor

Arthur J. Clark, Coordinator, Counseling & Human Development

Program, St. Lawrence University, 23 Romoda Drive, Canton, New York

13617. E-mail:

(Norcross, 2010; Lambert & Barley, 2002). In terms of the

importance of the therapeutic alliance, Ridley and Udipi (2002) found

that the quality of the client-counselor relationship was the most

significant discriminating factor for predicting treatment outcome. With

varying degrees of emphasis, empathy is endorsed and practiced in

counseling across a diverse range of contemporary theoretical

orientations (Clark, 2007, in press; Cochran & Cochran, 2006).

Although the use of empathy is broadly supported in counseling, it

is essential for a counselor to be aware of both its strengths and its

limitations (Feller & Cottone, 2003; Kohut, 1982). In particular,

empathy is subject to misuse when a counselor semantically confuses

empathy and sympathy. The uncertainty is understandable because in

research, as in everyday life, lack of specificity in the meaning of the

two terms can contribute to treatment misapplications (Aring, 1958;

Gruen & Mendelsohn, 1986). The purpose of this article is to

differentiate between and clarify the functions of empathy and sympathy

in counseling.


Through the consideration of four comparative dimensions in the

counseling experience–aim, appraisal, apprehension, and agreement–it

is possible to distinguish empathy from sympathy.

Aim. In counseling, the primary intent in employing empathy is to

express understanding of a client, whereas the focus of sympathy is a

client’s well-being in difficult or challenging circumstances

(Black, 2004; Wispe, 1986). Empathy emphasizes an active sharing by the

counselor of what a client is experiencing while maintaining some level

of emotional detachment. In contrast, a counselor’s sympathetic

response has the more circumscribed function of expressing compassion

for an individual’s distressful condition or situation (Eisenberg,

2000; Olinick, 1984).

In a counseling example, Stanley, 46, an electrical engineer,

expresses feelings of anger and dismay over the possibility of being

relocated by his company. He has been an employee at the same

manufacturing site for 12 years.

Stanley: I can’t believe it. Because of my job, there is a

possibility that I will have to move with my family to another part of

the country. I’m so upset. I don’t even want to talk about it.

Counselor (Sympathy): I am so sorry to hear this. Why don’t we

talk about something else that is less upsetting for you?

In reaction to the client’s distress, the counselor

demonstrates sympathy as a caring gesture by offering to change the

topic of discussion. In this instance, it is not the initial expression

of sympathy that is the problem (“I am so sorry to hear

this”). It is the fact that the counselor then changes the focus of

the session away from the essential issue in order to sympathetically

protect the client’s well-being and alleviate his immediate


In the next example, the counselor communicates empathic

understanding by acknowledging what the client is experiencing in a

purposeful and sensitive way that may prompt him to continue discussing

the troubling topic.

Counselor (Empathy): This is hard for you to talk about, and it

doesn’t make any sense to you. The prospect of this change seems

overwhelming to you at this point.

Certainly, a counselor can get caught up in the feelings of a

client in employing either empathy or sympathy. However, as a counselor

strives to empathically understand what a client is experiencing while

maintaining emotional detachment, this posture potentially provides a

broader perspective that extends beyond a client’s situational

distress. Accordingly, the counselor’s empathic understanding may

at times evoke a therapeutic direction in the longer-range service of

the client.

Appraisal. A counselor’s empathy entails attunement with a

client’s feelings and meanings (Gruen & Mendelsohn, 1986;

Pearson, 1999). Through a subjective process, a counselor may appraise a

client’s functioning by identifying with the person on a transitory

basis (Clark, 2007, 2009, in press). In contrast, rather than involving

a sharing of experiencing, sympathy instead proceeds from a

counselor’s judgment of a client’s emotional needs. Sympathy

is thus a reaction to a client’s distress that becomes manifest in

mild to intense expressions of feelings of sorrow for the plight of an

individual (Gribble & Oliver, 1973; Switankowsky, 2000). A counselor

may say, for example, “I’m sorry to hear about your recent

loss of your cat.” It is appropriate for the counselor to

communicate this authentic response, even without a full understanding

of the client’s feelings toward the cat. In other instances,

however, a counselor may express sympathy in a way that excessively

focuses on his or her appraisal of the client. Judgmental statements,

such as “You sure have it rough,” “It pains me to see you

going through all of this,” or “This is a terrible thing for

you,” involve an evaluation that primarily reflects the

counselor’s perceptions.

To continue with the example, Stanley begins to disclose more about

the potential effect of moving on his family if he has to change jobs.

Stanley: What this means is that my two kids will be uprooted and

have to move over a thousand miles from home. I’m worried sick

about what this would do to my children.

Counselor (Sympathy): That’s so sad. There are so many things

you are worrying about right now. 1 feel very badly for you.

This response overemphasizes the counselor’s personal

appraisal of Stanley’s situation and diverts the focus of the

session away from the client. The one-sided line of discussion also

inhibits momentum in moving forward with the therapeutic conversation.

In the next statement, the counselor expresses an empathic

understanding of the client in a more balanced way that may prompt

further discussion.

Counselor (Empathy): This move involves a major change in the lives

of your children, and it creates uncertainties that are troubling for


Although the examples set up a best case situation for empathy and

a worst case for sympathy, counselors need to be aware of the

possibility of overemphasizing their own reactions when expressing

either response. Attempting to accurately evaluate a client’s

perceptions often facilitates a more open exploration of therapeutic


Apprehension. A deeper way of knowing an individual is more likely

to occur when a counselor attempts to empathically understand a client

from multiple perspectives (Clark, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009, in press).

For instance, through their identification and imaginative capacities

counselors can subjectively apprehend what clients are experiencing.

From a different perspective, counselors may employ an interpersonal

modality by striving to grasp the verbal and nonverbal communications of

a client (Rogers, 1975). In contrast, when expressing sympathy it is not

necessary for a counselor to “enter into” a client’s

experiencing or to have a deeper knowledge of the person in order for

the process to be effective (Gribble & Oliver, 1973)–a counselor

may only have a general understanding of a client’s plight but

still be able to be sympathetic.

However, in other instances, if a counselor does not more fully

apprehend a client’s experiencing and expresses sympathy in a

perfunctory or superficial way, misdirections may occur. That is why

highly sympathetic expressions, such as “I was a teenager once, and

I know what you’re going through” or “I went through a

divorce, and I know how you feel,” are often rejected because

clients see them as presumptuous or shallow. Further, unless the

counselor has a deeper understanding of a client, it is possible for the

client to construe some sympathetic comments, such as “You have an

inner strength that you can always call upon” or “Things will

improve in time,” as trite or too generalized to be valid. Although

it certainly is possible for a counselor’s employment of empathy to

be inaccurate, apprehending a client’s functioning from multiple

perspectives frequently enhances empathic understanding.

In a continuation of the counseling example, Stanley discusses how

he was informed about the relocation plans within his company.

Stanley: I can’t believe how they told us about it. Last week,

the higher-ups gathered us all together in a room and said that a number

of employees would be reassigned to another plant. A couple of hours

later, my supervisor told me I was on the list of people who would have

to move. What an insult! I’ve given my heart and soul to my job.

Counselor (Sympathy): That’s really unfortunate, and I know

exactly how you feel. Once when I was in the service, I was called into

an office and told that I would be deployed within a month to a new post

in a different part of the country.

Although the self-disclosure of a counselor could contribute to

therapeutic gain, the technique may prove to be ineffective when

counselors assume that their own experience matches or equates to that

of the client (Egan, 2010; Ivey, Ivey, & Zalaquett, 2010). It is

possible, for instance, that Stanley perceives the counselor’s

disclosure as focusing more on the needs and personal perspectives of

the counselor. Also, for any number of reasons (the counselor was

single; the counselor was young; or that’s the way it is in the

service), Stanley might dismiss or reject the counselor’s


In the next example the counselor expresses empathic understanding

that is grounded in an immediate and extended apprehension of the


Counselor (Empathy): It hurts to be treated this way when you feel

that you’ve been a devoted employee for so long.

Apprehending a client’s subjective functioning, as in the

illustration with Stanley, often involves an attempt to grasp the

experiencing of the person within a broader context. Although a

counselor may be less than accurate when employing empathy, striving to

empathically understand a client’s experiencing in a cultural

context often lessens this possibility (Miville, Carlozzi, Gushue,

Schara, & Ueda, 2006; Ridley & Udipi, 2002).

Agreement. A counselor’s accurate and appropriate use of

empathy involves expressing an empathic understanding without implying

agreement with the client. In contrast, in expressing compassion and

commiseration, it is possible for a counselor to sympathetically convey

agreement with the views and perspectives of a client (Egan, 2010). With

the intent of alleviating distress a counselor may side with a client

and support the person’s point of view (Szalita, 1976). As an

unintended consequence, however, the counselor’s perceived

agreement with a client may subsequently hinder the exploration of

alternative perspectives. It is also possible for a counselor to agree

that a client should feel bad, angry, or even hopeless, and this

implicit endorsement can contribute to the client’s assuming a

victim role (Knapp, 2007).

Continuing with the counseling example, Stanley relates additional

information about his job relocation:

Stanley: I’m so ticked off about work. This week it got even

worse because I found out that unless I take the position in the other

plant, I could lose my job altogether. I was informed about this in an

e-mail rather than face-to-face. I’m about ready to tell them all

where to go.

Counselor (Sympathy): What a terrible way to treat you. How much

more can you be expected to take? 1 don’t blame you for being angry

and wanting to tell them off:

In this interaction, the counselor intensely affirms the

insensitivity of the message; however, it also makes it difficult for

Stanley to reverse his confirmed choice without losing face or appearing

inconsistent and weak.

In the next exchange, the counselor empathically responds to the

client’s communication without implying agreement. The counselor

also conveys a more balanced and open reaction that seems to capture the

client’s meaning.

Counselor (Empathy): The prospect of having to either move or lose

your job is even more painful for you when your supervisors seem to act

in an impersonal way about it.

A counselor’s undue expression of sympathy may negatively

influence a client by appearing to agree with the client. Agreement with

a client may have the detrimental effect of foreclosing the exploration

of therapeutic issues.


When a mental health counselor equates empathy and sympathy, this

confusion may contribute to misdirections in counseling. Empathy is a

prominent factor in promoting positive treatment outcomes; sympathy has

an essential role in human relationships. It is possible to clarify

distinctions between empathy and sympathy through the dimensions of aim,

appraisal, apprehension, and agreement. A counselor’s awareness of

the appropriate use of empathy and sympathy has potential to foster

therapeutic gain.


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Black, D. M. (2004). Sympathy reconfigured: Some reflections on

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Psycho-Analysis, 85, 579-596.

Chismar, D. (1988). Empathy and sympathy: The important difference.

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Clark, A. J. (2002). Early recollections: Theory and practice in

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affective displays in others: The distinction between empathy and

sympathy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 609-614.

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mental health. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 63, 395-407.

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(Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Therapist contributions

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& Ueda, M. (2006). Mental health counselor qualities for a diverse

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being heard. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 40, 148-173.

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E. Trimble (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (5th ed., pp. 317 333).

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Arthur J. Clark is affiliated with St. Lawrence University.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Professor

Arthur J. Clark, Coordinator, Counseling & Human Development

Program, St. Lawrence University, 23 Romoda Drive, Canton, New York

13617. E-mail:

Amazon is worth more than Microsoft: Market value surges past $700B, now 3rd largest U.S. company

Amazon is worth more than Microsoft: Market value surges past $700B, now 3rd largest U.S. company GeekWire

Jeff BezosAmazon CEO Jeff Bezos. (GeekWire File Photo)

Amazon’s market value surged to more than $702 billion on Wednesday, making the Seattle-based company the third-largest U.S. public company by that measure — surpassing its regional neighbor Microsoft for the first time.

The milestone underscores Amazon rise as a tech giant, expanding well beyond its core e-commerce business into cloud computing, artificial intelligence, consumer devices, entertainment, package delivery and many other areas. Amazon is now behind only Google ($745 billion) and Apple ($849 billion) in market value.

Amazon’s shares rose more than 2.5 percent on Friday to close at $1,451.05. Its shares are up more than 9 percent over the past month, boosted in part by a strong earnings report for the fourth quarter.

The company reached the milestone despite Microsoft shares rising 1.5 percent on the day to $90.81. Microsoft’s market value is hovering right around $700 billion.

Bedroom interior Design Ideas – How You Can Decorate A Bedroom

The residential design process is normally managed by an architect. This is definitely an possibility to really showcase your own unique style in a way that not even a professional would be able to obtain in touch with. You may go in a lot of different design directions to have the exact look you would like using materials that you simply curently have inside your home. Are you thinking of your career in Interior Design? Are you interested in physical spaces, and would you frequently notice your surroundings.

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Completely portable dog houses are those given by Petmate. You don’t have to live in a log home to bring the powerful presence of natural wood to your living space. articledashboard.

Tattoos on the Feet or AnklesHidden Tattoo Design Ideas. Getting the past order of the certain type of tile or flooring often means the main difference between an alright design choice and the best decision to your space. What is Retro?.

Once you have the viewers in your page, it’s time to suit your needs to go beyond the colors and images. Regardless of whether you live in the sprawling villa or inside a small apartment with little space to spare, proper and meticulous planning ensures that you simply can make the best out of the available space. The software also includes textures for tiled floors, granite countertops and custom cabinetry. ArchiCAD is very effective for all stages of residential design as it stores all the information for your house in the central database, changes made in a single view are d in every others, which include floor plans, section/elevations, ArchiCAD’s 3D modelling structure also provides additional benefits such because the advance of bills of material information, something that wouldn’t be possible using a 2d drawing approach. However you imagine it, and whatever your feeling of the great outdoors is, the trend is on your journey to spicing up dark decors of years past.

Feb 07, 2017. Family members and even guests tour the toilet every now then to meet their bladder needs so that as well as make use of its aesthetic environment and amenities for their rituals. It’s all section of this trend to take away the formal aspect to living, the almost straitjacket feel where the interior is all lines and spaces and structured. The most frequent cause is that your DNS settings are incorrect. If you’re the master of this website:.

Designing a house is nothing new plus it may be going on ever since the initial house which can be why your house design software should simply be considered as complementary or supplemental resources to assist you design your house of your dreams. And if that isn’t enough to convince you just how much fun desert landscape design can be, remember this will also be an extremely low maintenace kind of garden. . You could make artwork yourself and try several craft projects and make your accessories from items that you curently have round the house.

Grand Canyon Tours – Make This Christmas An Adventure!

Traveling the Grand Canyon is an excellent approach to celebrate the Holiday holiday season, however, you should start planning today. Whether you excursion by helicopter, coach, or plane, browsing the Grand Canyon is an experience you may remember.

The North Side opens up again in March and shuts down during the winter. You can still find two rims left to visit. You are able to go-to the West or South Edge. You can begin one of these brilliant travels inside the location of Vegas or from your South Rim.

Trips out of Vegas go to perhaps the South Wheel or the West. You’ll have to an excursion that area of the Grand Canyon since those trip doesn’t ensure it is towards the West Wheel if you’ll start your excursion at the South Side.

Starting your tour in Vegas has its gains, because of this way, you have the most excursion choices. Depending on budget and your choices, you’ll be able to the expedition by airplane, chopper, or motor coach. Nevertheless, the aircraft trips would be the only ones that are powered by Christmas day.

The West Wheel is headed and then by helicopter trips beginning in Nevada because the South Wheel is too far in the town. You’re able to take a landing excursion to the West Rim as well as the helicopter can set along on top of the rim or on the canyon floor, with respect to the excursion you select. One of many popular tours you may want to contemplate is the one that descends to the underside of the canyon, where you will get out and enjoy a good wine picnic, followed closely by a calming boat ride-on the Colorado Water that flows across the foot of the canyon.

These helicopter trips are fundamental or luxurious packages. The essential trips take-off from Boulder City, which can be about half an hour outside of Vegas. The luxurious trips around the other-hand, lose right from the Vegas Strip, and so they actually come to your hotel with car transportation that is free. Once your helicopter flies back to Vegas, plus, you will be handled with an aerial view of the places around the Reel.

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Touring By Plane

Since they follow precisely the same tracks because the helicopter tours, you may see the same places on an aircraft expedition, the difference may be the planes fly in a higher altitude. The aircraft travels cost less also, so if you want to look at your cash they are a superior alternative. The West Side can be landed on top of by the jets, as soon as there, it is possible to shift to a helicopter and descend for the canyon floor, or you are able to explore the most effective of the rim, and consume the Grand Canyon Skywalk.

The jets that fly out of Nevada can visit the South Edge and these are excellent prospects for sightseeing. You can enhance your airplane tour to incorporate a-2 1/2 time bus excursion of the Grand Canyon National Park at the South Rim. Plus, you could add on the helicopter trip of the South Edge too.

You also can find an aircraft tour at the South Side, and you should fly across the same option whilst the 50- chopper travels. Each one of these South Side air trips results from the airport in Tusayan, which can be close to the primary gates at the South Edge. Plane tours can also be a great solution if you’ll be traveling with a bigger collection because it will be hard to find seats for everyone on a single chopper.

Success Elzatta Pamer Hijab Clothing Collection in New York

Elzatta recently held a fashion show his latest collection on Saturday (30/05/2015). This time, the Muslim brand fashion parade was special because it was featured in the New York, USA. The event was part of the inter-religious discussions held Nusantara Foundation, a nonprofit organization focused on campaigning face to the world of Islamic Indonesia.

Located in Building 4 W 43rd Street, the fashion show begins at 18:30 local time. The fashion show was attended by approximately 400 people from all walks of life, not only the people of Indonesia. Even some Grosir Kerudung Rabbani Paris Polos Surabaya representatives of international brands, namely Maria Adriana Papell and Dustan of brand Rocawear.

“I do not know fashion hijab can be beautiful and stylish like this,” said Maria.

Received rave reviews from the fashion show was quite positive and festive. “We’re grateful to get applause from the citizens of New York. We wanted to show the face of Islam in the archipelago were cheerful and not rigid, through his fashion,” said Elidawati as leader Benzaya Group which oversees Elzatta.

According to the location display, featuring 22 fashion hijab Elzatta inspired by the distinctive style of the New Yorker. The clothes presented with bright colors and earth tone shades of sunrise. Even so, the clothes are not too crowded because it is offered with a more minimalist pieces. For this collection, Elzatta also offers new material, namely chiffon. Shades of Archipelago titled collection is performed by eight local models.

Elidawati claim to feel happy and relieved with the success of the fashion show. He also hoped that the international community can recognize Indonesian hijab fashionable and rich colors, not merely as dark as the Middle East. The fashion show is also presented in order to strengthen the position of Indonesia as a Muslim fashion mecca of the world.

“I have 25 years of struggling in this industry. We wish ideals of Indonesia to become the world kilbat Muslim clothing can be achieved,” added Elidawati.

What Women Need To Know About Sleep Disorders

There’s satisfactory investigation to exhibit that women tend to be more prone to sleep ailments that are related than males. One of the main reasons for this is the hormonal makeup of the sweetheart. If you find a or perhaps a decline in hormone levels, particularly during the period, pre or post-pregnancy and at that time of menopause, women are found to record more sleep-related issues than males. In reality, females are 1.4 times more likely to complain of insomnia than men could. Likewise, occasionally, the issue ladies have is excessive sleeping.

Their unwanted side effects are plenty, although there is no racial schedule on which sleep problems affect girls. There’s cardiac trouble in girls along with an increased potential for stroke. Hypertension may also be not impossible. Because sleeping handles nearly all of our physical characteristics, there is of insomnia being bad for our health every chance.

Investigation shows that women are inclined to sleep better compared to older girls. In some cases, it is seen that ladies in their reproductive years continue to possess sleep-related issues. You can find quite a few elements that influence sleep habits in a lady. A number of them are:

Factors that influence sleep patterns in women

Changes – alterations throughout the period also cause insomnia as well as sleepiness. Moods and thoughts are able to also affect besides having strong or indirect effects on rest. That is popularly known as premenstrual pressure, and almost 80% of females report having it.

Pregnancy – Maternity also can affect sleep patterns. Typically, it’s realized that within the first trimester, ladies need more so and more rest through the daytime. Through the second trimester, sleeping patterns and this changes tend to be less uncomfortable. A consistent need to urinate, most on account of distress of the third-trimester women suffer from insomnia, acidity, heartburn movements at strange moments. Possibly pain in the lower back has a tendency to maintain up women. Sometimes, there is swelling while in the nasal passage resulting in sleep apnea or snoring.

Menstruation-related causes: this may cause sleep-related difficulty, and ladies aging and Menopause can lead to both real and hormonal alterations. A propensity is to not keep asleep at night and be disturbed throughout the day. Women likewise suffer from night sweats and hot flashes, and also this can be an indicator of estrogen levels. Deep-sleep remains challenging at the moment and being not asleep at night a continuing.

Insomnia Among Women

Insomnia is the most commonly documented sleeping condition in girls followed closely by fluctuating daytime sleepiness, stress, rest patterns and the failure to wake-up punctually. Psychological stress could be one of the sparks as well. This is especially seen in other such indicators that could cause sleep-related difficulty while in the long term along with working mothers who often dismiss weakness. The shortcoming to get to sleep, get deep sleep or soaring too soon can be included by insomnia in females. Many also find it too difficult to return to sleep once conscious.

What is Forex ~ Understanding Forex, Functions, and Actors In Forex Market

What is forex? For most of us may not know much about the meaning of the word. Forex, in general, can be interpreted as a form of currency trading is one country against another country’s currency. What is interesting is the current forex has become a very promising business field. For those of you who want to know more about forex, this article will provide an overview of the definition, function, as well as the perpetrators of the forex world that hopefully can be an additional useful information for you.

Understanding Forex

Forex is basically a combination of two words in the English language is “foreign” and “exchange”. Foreign can mean “foreign” or “overseas” while the Exchange can be interpreted as an “exchange”, in this case that the purpose is the exchange of currencies. And when combined, forex, or foreign exchange can be interpreted as a foreign currency exchange activities.

In one of the Wikipedia page explains that forex in Indonesian also known by several terms that Forex or Foreign Exchange Market. Both terms have the same meaning that a trade involving two currencies of different countries as the trade objects. Deeper in the process of buying and selling the currency there is the role of the existing major financial markets around the world and lasts for 24 hours a day, respectively.

In the rotation, the global forex or forex market will start from the state of New Zealand and Australia, which occurred at 5:00 a.m. to 14:00 pm. Turnover will then move towards the west towards the Asian markets which took place at 7:00 to 16:00 pm, following European markets at 1:00 p.m. to 22:00 pm, and the last one is the American market at 20:30 to 10:30 pm. After the American market is over, the rotation will return to New Zealand and Australia market, and so on.

The presence function Forex Market

In the process, forex has several major functions are very influential to the perpetrators. The function of the forex divided into three as follows:

# 1. The first function is to facilitate the process of exchange. As we know, in the course of economic activity in everyday human beings sometimes require funding in the form of another country’s currency. Whether it is used in business, travel, shopping or storage.

Currency exchange can be done with a system called Clearing. Well one of the functions of the forex itself is providing these services. For simplicity, the example of these services is the currency exchange service you normally encounter in various places, ranging from banks to exchange counters in various places.

# 2. The second function is to conduct hedging. Hedging in the Indonesian language also called hedging. This is an action that is commonly performed by a foreign exchange trader as a “guarantee” that the value of the investment fund does not decrease or loss when he sells currency in two different markets. In this case also the role of banks, both domestic banks and foreign banks the US as the guarantor of the fund.

# 3. The third function is to conduct arbitration. Arbitration is essentially the difference in interest rates of two different currencies. And arbitration actions are actions taken to benefit from differences in currency itself. In simple terms this action is done by buying a currency that is being undervalued in a country, and sell the currency in the country where the high value of the currency.

Related Articles: Forex Broker Indonesia ~ very promising business potential

Perpetrators In Forex Market

In the forex market is certainly there were several parties involved and influence in it or the term as a player in that market. Players forex market can be divided into 6 as follows:


Banks play an important role in the forex market. In this case, the technical term interbank money market (interbank). Interbank own role to meet virtually all the needs of the buying and selling as well as the velocity of currency in the field of global business. In performing its functions sometimes the bank will make the process of buying and selling currencies on behalf of its customers. But in large quantities, then the transaction will be carried out on behalf of the bank itself.

Interbank itself is also used by the forex broker to benefit in bringing together sellers and buyers of forex directly. From there a forex broker can benefit not less. But this time, the system used the interbank money market has been developed with the electronic system more effective and efficient.

Business Needs

The second forex market participants are the needs of companies or businesses when making payments using foreign currencies. Basically, a business sometimes requires funding in the form of foreign currency when conducting a transaction, but actually not too pronounced direct effect on the state of a currency.

Will discuss the company’s different result if large corporations. Here, large companies have a big influence and unexpected if they take action release foreign currency in large amounts. When they let go, the market or speculators cannot expect it directly. As a result, the value of a currency can move up or down.

Central Bank

Central Bank in that it has a role as controller of the money supply, inflation and is also related to interest rates. With a very important role, the Central Bank could easily affect the forex market developments.

One of the advantages of the Central Bank of a country is only by making intervention alone is enough to create turmoil on the state of the forex market or foreign exchange. This is due to the concerns with the actions of the Central Bank could raise or lower the interest rate currencies. Then a little more continuity of the currency market was determined by the movements of the Central Bank in the country.

Investment Management Company

Generally, Investment Management Company who play in the forex market does not make this effort as the main source of revenue especially as the pace of speculation. The company is a regular body that manages several funds such as pension funds or donation from the foundation. All the funds that they use on the forex market sometimes just “playing” to get additional revenue for the company.

Hedge funds

Next is hedge funds. Hedge funds are a company that is playing in the forex market as speculators. Funds they loose capital is truly maximized in the forex market, there is no other reason for them except to benefit greatly from such activities.

What is surprising is Hedge funds have the ability to grow large even have the ability to affect currency values better than the Central Bank. If things are going to be very difficult to move the value of the currency is good because it is under the control of a koorporasi are oriented at an advantage.

Broker / Broker

The latter is a forex broker. Until recently, the forex broker is still the most widely sipped the profit from the forex market. Basically, forex broker can be an individual, group or company that has a job to bring the customers/buyers with sellers of foreign currency.

The existence of forex broker is very helpful for forex business people or commonly called forex trading. But not infrequently, forex brokerage firms are not responsible for false alias instead become the most detrimental, especially for the new players in the forex business.

Here was a review of the definition of what is forex, function, as well as the actors in the forex market. Hope can be a useful additional knowledge. And in closing, here is a video about the forex could be an additional reference for you.